Axeon Inc. » Courses » AS9100 Aerospace & AS9110

 

AS9100 is the quality management standard specifically written for the Aerospace and Defense industry. It had long been considered by some entities, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), that the ISO 9000 series of standards were inadequate in terms of ensuring quality and safety in the “high risk” aerospace industry.

Among the most safety-conscious in the world, the aerospace industry has long-recognized the crucial role quality plays in the performance of aviation, space and defense products. Consumer and customer confidence is directly linked to perceptions about the quality of equipment and services manufacturers in this industry offer.

The industry-wide AS9100 standard was established in 1999 and is the standard to which thousands of suppliers in the aerospace industry are held.

Companies achieving certification report:

• Improved product quality and on-time delivery

• More efficient labor utilization

• Increased customer satisfaction in supplier-customer relationships

• Alignment with the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) strategy of having 90% of supply chain certified

 

Early Bird Pricing

• $200 off- 60 Days in Advance

• $100 off- 30 Days in Advance

 

5-Day AS9110:2012 Exemplar Global (RABQSA) Certified Aerospace-MRO Lead Auditor - $1945

5-Day 40 (hr) AS9110:2012 Exemplar Global (RABQSA)

Certified Aerospace-MRO Lead Auditor Training Program

 

Days: 5 • CTUs: 4.0 • Price: $1945

Days 1-2: 7:30 a.m.–7:00 p.m.

Days 3-4: 7:30 a.m.–6:00 p.m

Day 5: 8:00 a.m.–11:00 a.m.

 

This course will present the principles and practices of auditing of aerospace quality management systems as related to AS9110:2009 and ISO 19011.

ansi rab logo

An attendee who successfully completes the course will be able to

  • Explain the intent and requirement of each clause of AS9110:2012.
  • Discuss compliance to Civil Aviation Requirements and conformity to AS9110:2012.
  • Identify the audit evidence needed to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of AS9110:2012.
  • Describe the requirements of the current revision of ISO 19011 as applicable to the audit process.
  • Describe the function of first-, second- and third-party, the similarities and differences, and the varying roles and responsibilities of the auditor, the auditee and the audit client each of these activities.
  • Perform all aspects of an audit of a process in accordance with ISO 19011, including audit planning, document review, use of checklists, opening and closing meetings, sampling, Note-Taking, objective evidence, audit team meetings, classification of nonconformities, communication and documentation of nonconformities and observations, audit reporting, and record keeping.
  • Describe the aerospace auditor’s personal qualifications and conduct, including personal attributes, audit management capabilities, interviewing techniques.
  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of the auditor and the auditee at all stages of the corrective action process.
  • Describe and undertake the roles and responsibilities of an auditor and of an audit team leader during the audit process.
  • Explain the terminology of ISO 9000:2005, as employed by the ISO 9000 series standards, and AS9110:2012.
  • Describe the SAE AS9014 and AS9104 Requirements for Certification of Quality Systems to AS9110:2012.
  • Describe how to establish an audit path or trail and when to deviate.
  • Determine an audit schedule based upon past audit experience and degree of importance based upon the type of business.
  • Describe the documentation required by AS9110:2012 and the interrelationships between the quality manual, procedures, quality planning, policy and objectives.
  • Demonstrate the proper use of the applicable checklists and scoring methods.

 

Agenda

 

Day One

  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Activity #1 Definitions
  • Background History and Rationale of Quality Management
  • Introduction to the family of documents of the contents of AS9110:2012
  • Activity #2 Using the standard as the basis for an audit

 

Day Two

  • The Process Approach
  • Analyzing Audit Findings
  • Activity #3 Audit to AS9110:2012
  • Control and Administration of AS9110 Audit Programs
  • QMS Auditor Qualifications
  • Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors
  • Activity #4 Evaluation of Procedures and Documents
  • The Audit Checklist
  • Activity #5 Writing good Checklist Questions

 

Day Three

  • Activity #6 Preparation for an Audit
  • Activity #7 Conducting an Audit
  • Activity #8 Compiling Audit Findings
  • Documentation in the Quality System
  • Activity #9 Reasons to Document
  • Planning and Conducting Audits
  • Activity #10 Applicability of the Clauses
  • Activity #11 Audit Demonstrations and Critique

 

Day Four

  • Completing the Audit Cycle
  • Activity #12 Preparing for Audit #2
  • Discussion – Keys to Audit Success
  • Activity #13 Conducting Audit #2
  • Discussion of Activity #13
  • Activity #14 Summarizing Audit Findings
  • Elements of an Audit Report
  • Activity #15 Preparation for a Closing Meeting
  • Activity #16 The Closing Meeting – and class discussion

 

Day Five

 

Review & EXAM

 

As a member of your AS9110:2012 project team, you gain critical knowledge to move your company ahead in today’s competitive marketplace.ISO Management Representatives will gain the credibility and prestige to effectively interact with certification bodies, customers, and suppliers.

________________________________________________________________

-This course is certified in the RABQSA Certification Program, and together with the IAQG Aerospace Auditor Transition Training meets the training portion of the requirements for certification of individual AS9110:2012 Quality Systems Auditors.
-This Exemplar Global Certified course is offered in cooperation with AQS Management Systems, an Exemplar Global Certified course provider.

5-Day AS9100 Lead Auditor Exemplar Global (RABQSA) Certified - $1945

5 Day (40 Hr) RABQSA Certified AS9100: 2009 (Rev. C)

Aerospace Lead Auditor Training

 

Days: 5 • CTUs: 4.0

Days 1: 2 7:30 a.m.–7:00 p.m.

Days 3: 4 7:30 a.m.–6:00 p.m

Day 5: 8:00 a.m.–11:00 a.m.

 

This course will present the principles and practices of auditing of aerospace quality management systems as related to AS9100:2009 and ISO 19011.

ansi rab logo

An attendee who successfully completes the course will be able to

  • Explain the intent and requirement of each clause of AS9100:2009.
  • Identify the audit evidence needed to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of AS9100:2009.
  • Describe the requirements of the current revision of ISO 19011 as applicable to the audit process.
  • Describe the function of first-, second-, and third-party audits, the similarities and differences, and the varying roles and responsibilities of the auditor, the auditee and the client of the audit client in each of these activities.
  • Perform all aspects of an audit of a process in accordance with ISO 19011, including audit planning, document review, use of checklists, opening and closing meetings, sampling, note-taking, objective evidence, audit team meetings, classification of nonconformities, communication and documentation of nonconformities and observations, audit reporting, and record keeping.
  • Describe the aerospace auditor’s personal qualifications and conduct, including personal attributes, audit management capabilities, and interviewing techniques.
  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of the auditor and the auditee at all stages of the corrective action process.
  • Describe and undertake the roles and responsibilities of an auditor and of an audit team leader.
  • Explain the terminology of ISO 9000:2005, as employed by the ISO 9000 series standards, and AS9100:2009.
  • Describe how to establish an audit path or trail and when to deviate.
  • Determine an audit schedule based upon past audit experience and degree of importance based upon the type of business.
  • Describe the documentation required by AS9100:2009 and the interrelationships between the quality manual, procedures, quality planning, policy and objectives.
  • Demonstrate the proper use of the applicable checklists and scoring methods.

 

Agenda

 

Day One

  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Activity #1 Definitions
  • Background History and Rationale of Quality Management
  • Introduction to the family of documents of the contents of AS9100:2009
  • Activity #2 Using the standard as the basis for an audit

 

Day Two

  • The Process Approach
  • Analyzing Audit Findings
  • Activity #3 Audit to AS9100:2009
  • Control and Administration of AS9100 Audit Programs
  • QMS Auditor Qualifications
  • Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors
  • Activity #4 Evaluation of Procedures and Documents
  • The Audit Checklist
  • Activity #5 Writing Good Checklist Questions

 

Day Three

  • Activity #6 Preparation for an Audit
  • Activity #7 Conducting an Audit
  • Activity #8 Compiling Audit Findings
  • Documentation in the Quality System
  • Activity #9 Reasons to Document
  • Planning and Conducting Audits
  • Activity #10 Applicability of the Clauses
  • Activity #11 Audit Demonstrations and Critique

 

Day Four

  • Completing the Audit Cycle
  • Activity #12 Preparing for Audit #2
  • Discussion – Keys to Audit Success
  • Activity #13 Conducting Audit #2
  • Discussion of Activity #13
  • Activity #14 Summarizing Audit Findings
  • Elements of an Audit Report
  • Activity #15 Preparation for a Closing Meeting
  • Activity #16 The Closing Meeting – and class discussion

 

Day Five

 

Review & EXAM

 

As a member of your AS9100:2009 project team, you gain critical knowledge to move your company ahead in today’s competitive marketplace.


________________________________________________________________
-This course is certified in the RABQSA Certification Program, and together with the IAQG Aerospace Auditor Transition Training, meets the training portion of the requirements for certification of individual AS9100:2009 Quality Systems Auditors.
-AQS Management Systems, Inc. is an internationally recognized management consulting firm specializing in ISO 9000 implementation. ISO Management Representatives will gain the credibility and prestige to effectively interact with certification bodies, customers, and suppliers.

4-day IAQG Sanctioned Aerospace Auditor Training (AATT) AS9100 - $2195

IAQG Sanctioned Aerospace Auditor Training (AATT) AS9100

 

AS 9100 4 Day Instructor-led Classroom Training/Evaluation and Examination

 The Instructor-led component of the AS9100 IAQG-Sanctioned AATT is a four day class that includes how to audit to the AS9100 series standards using the process-based approach of AS9101D. Along with the training in this instructor-led component, there is a continual evaluation of the trainees paying particular attention to his/her active participation, role play, and case study exercises. The fourth day includes Online Final Examinations (which will require a laptop computer) and an Interview.

 

Agenda

 

Day 1

  • Bridging the online modules and the classroom training
  • Pre-Audit Activities
  • Stage 1 Audit Activities

 

Day 2

  • Stage 2 Auditing Planning
  • Auditing Top Management
  • Auditing Process Owners
  • Auditing Process Trails

 

Day 3

  • Audit Conclusions
  • Audit Reporting
  • Certification Requirements
  • Surveillance, Recertification and Special Audits
  • Use of the new AS9101D Audit Forms

 

Day 4

  • Final Online Knowledge and Application Exams
  • Oral Interview Exam
  • Final Determination of Pass/Fail
  • Final scores and the determination Pass/Fail are provided by the IAQG and not the training provider.

 

Prerequisites

Online Training – Successful completion of AS 9100 Online Component Registering for and completing the AS9100 online module through Plexus Intl. is the first step in meeting the IAQG AATT training requirements. The online component begins with the Knowledge and Application Initial

 

Examinations followed by the Foundations

Understanding 9100 online training module. Participants achieving a score of 90% or better on the exams may opt out of taking the online training module. Upon completion, participants will be provided a Certificate of Completion of the Online Modules.

 

Note:

This class is being taught by Gladhill Associates International. In order to be admitted to the Gladhill Associates International instructor-led classroom course, attendee must present to Gladhill Associates International the Certificate before the start of class or achieve a passing score of 90% on both Initial Examinations.

 

2-Day ISO 3100 & 14971 Risk Management Training - $1295

2-Day Quality Risk Management Principles and Practices

ISO 31000 & 14971

 

 Quality Risk Management Principles and Practices

This class will teach participants to turn Risk Assessment into a well-organized systematic approach that targets and then reduces risk to the organization, customers and stakeholders. While Risk Management is a requirement for Aerospace and Medical Device Manufacturers, these same techniques can be used regardless of the products or services offered by your organization.

 

Who should attend

  • Anyone who needs to develop and implement a comprehensive Risk Management
  • Program meets requirements for ISO 14971 and ISO 31000
  • Any organization that needs a formal, disciplined approach to the identification, assessment and management of Risk
  • Quality Managers
  • Engineering Managers
  • Internal and external auditors
  • Design Teams
  • Management Representatives
  • Project Teams
  • Anyone who needs to understand the difference between Risk Identification, Risk
  • Assessment and Risk Management and how to put these important tools to work for your organization.

 

What you will learn

  • The components of risk management that can be applied to any organization, regardless of their products or customers
  • How to design a risk management structure for your organization that gets results
  • A means for demonstrating to customers and stakeholders the potential risks associated with products or processes and provide assurance that these have been effectively managed
  • Tools used for Risk Assessment such as FMEA and FMECA
  • How to quantify risk as the first step in establishing priorities for your organization

 

Day 1 Agenda

  • Risk terminology and theory from ISO 14971,ISO 13485, and ISO 31000
  • History of risk management and relationship with Corrective and Preventive Actions
  • Requirements of ISO 14971
  • Design of framework for managing risk
  • 4.3.2 Establishing risk management policy
  • Integration into organizational processes
  • Establishing internal communication and reporting mechanisms
  • Establishing external communication and reporting mechanisms
  • Implementing risk management
  • Implementing the framework for managing risk & risk management process
  • Continual improvement of the framework
  • Communication and consultation
  • Establishing the internal and external context
  • Establishing the context of the risk management process
  • Defining risk criteria
  • Risk assessment
  • Risk identification
  • Risk analysis
  • Risk evaluation
  • Risk treatment
  • Selection of risk treatment options
  • Preparing and implementing risk treatment plans
  • Monitoring and review
  • Recording the risk management process
  • Exercises B.1 – B.6 internal & external framework, risk treatment, risk monitoring, risk policy, risk analysis
  • Additional Requirements for ISO 31000

 

Day 2 Agenda

  • Guidelines from ISO 14971/31000 Risk Assessment Techniques – Risk Management
  • Selection of risk assessment techniques
  • Selection of techniques
  • Availability of Resources
  • The Nature and Degree of Uncertainty
  • Complexity of risk
  • Application of risk assessment during life cycle phases
  • Types of risk assessment techniques
  • Flow charts and process mapping
  • Brainstorming
  • Risk Checklists
  • Delphi Method
  • Process FMEA
  • Design FMEA
  • Fault Tree Analysis (Event Tree Analysis)
  • HAZOP & HACCP
  • Cause & Effect with 5-Whys & 7-M
  • Preliminary hazard analysis
  • Risk Ranking and Filtering
  • Case Studies with application
  • Organization’s Risk Procedures and Tools
  • Case Studies from Organization’s Risk Analysis, Treatment and Monitoring
  • Risk Applications in the Aerospace organization
  • Internal Audit
  • Training
  • CAPA System
  • Supplier Selection & Control
  • Outsourcing – Special Processes
  • Facilities and Equipment
  • Design & Development
  • Production and Process Controls
  • Process Validation and Re-Validation
  • Servicing
  • Design FMEA Case Study
  • Various Risk Case Studies
  • Organization’s Case Studies
  • Statistical Methods
  • Test

 

2-Day AS9100 Rev C Internal Auditor - $1295

2 Day AS9100:2009 Rev C Internal Auditor Class

by Exemplar Global (RABQSA) Auditors-Trainers

 

 

Days: 2 • CEU Hrs: 1.9

Day 1: 7:30 a.m.- 5:30 p.m.

Day 2: 7:30 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.

Audience: Beginner to Advanced

 

Overview

This course prepares you to perform internal QMS audits using industry-proven techniques and to apply proper interpretation of the ISO standard to real life audit situations. You’ll follow the full audit process including: audit tools and preparation, opening meetings, audit interviews, closing meetings, and reporting. This is a very practical class that is not “bogged-down” with academic discussions of quality topics that have limited utility for class attendees.

This Internal Audit class makes extensive use of activities and case studies to help you fully understand the requirements of quality system auditing to the AS9100:2009 standard. Since people “lock” new understanding into long-term memory much better when they apply it, lecture time is held to a minimum providing you time to grasp and then practice your newly acquired skills in simulated real-life audit situations.

 

Who Should Attend

Individuals who will perform audits to AS9100:2009 Standards or Quality Management Systems, individuals assisting their organizations toward AS9100:2009 registration, or individuals who are frequently audited should attend this training. Quality directors, managers, engineers, auditors, ISO coordinators, laboratory quality professionals, and anyone engaged in quality audits will benefit from this training.

 

Prerequisites

There are no required prerequisites. This course is routinely taught to quality novices and life-time professionals. All attendees are required to bring their own copy of the AS9100:2009 Quality Management Standard Requirements to this training course. These will not be provided for you. We strongly advise you bring a “paper” copy.

 

Course Objectives

  • Prepared to conduct a solo internal audit at successful course completion
  • Fully understand and interpret the AS9100:2009 requirements.
  • Apply the proper interpretation of the standard in actual audit situations.
  • Understand process auditing tools leading to substantive quality system improvements
  • Tailor an audit interview based on the requirements of the standard and obtain audit evidence from this interview.
  • Follow-up and resolve “audit trails that present themselves during the audit interviews
  • Conduct audits that result in real improvements to the quality system
  • Plan and execute the entire audit process including: audit preparation, opening meetings, auditing, closing meetings, and reporting

 

Agenda

 

Part 1: Introductions and Self-Assessment

  • Course requirements
  • How to get the most from this experience
  • Networking with class mates (industry professionals)
  • Self-assessment of audit skills and internal audit programs Exercise #1

 

Part 2: Quality Terminology and Definitions

  • Quality industry vernacular from AS9100:2009, ISO 19011
  • Differentiating between Verification and Validation
  • Understanding Corrective and Preventive Actions
  • How to converse with external auditors
  • Terminology Exercise #2

 

Part 3: Requirements of AS9100:2009

  • Demystifying the AS9100:2009 standard
  • Interpreting and cross-referencing the quality standard
  • Analyzing audit findings
  • Audit exercises for application of AS9100:2009 to quality events
  • Exercise #3-#7: Short case studies in quality events

 

Part 4: The Audit Process: Roles and Duties

  • Roles of Auditors, Auditees, and Management during Internal Audits (IAs)
  • Qualifying Auditors
  • Duties of the IA staff
  • Exercise #8: Preparing to be audited

 

Part 5: The Audit Process: Performing the Audit Process

  • Audit Tools – checklists, process maps, findings, reports
  • Conducting Audit Interviews Exercise #9
  • Exercise #10 Quality event case studies

 

Part 6: The Audit Process: Audit Skills and Techniques

  • Audit Interviewing techniques
  • Continual improvement techniques
  • Process Auditing methods
  • Developing a “continual improvement” attitude in the organization
  • Exercise #11 Writing Audit Findings
  • Exercise #12 Evaluating the effectiveness of Audits
  • Exercise #13 Application of Process Auditing techniques

 

Part 7: The Audit Process: Finalizing the Audit

  • Writing the audit report
  • Opening and Closing Meetings
  • Exercise #14 Writing and audit report
  • Exercise #15 Writing Non-Conforming Reports
  • Exercise #16 Conducting a Closing Meeting

 

Review and Examination for Certificate

 

2-Day AS9100 Project Management Transition-Implementation

Understanding and Implementing

AS9100 Rev-C

 

Days: 2 • CTUs: 1.6

 

This Program Will Benefit

People who are looking for a course that will provide the skills necessary to successfully implement AS9100. Project managers who are looking for an in-depth, start to finish understanding, of how to manage a successful project. Project managers and members of an AS9100 implementation team who want to know the specific steps to undertake to assure a successful project. Members of AS9100 project teams who want to gain critical knowledge to move their organization toward cost effective. ISO Project Managers who want to use the latest project management techniques to effectively manage their project.

 

Personnel who attend this course will leave with

  • A detailed project timeline that has been customized for their organization and its unique needs
  • A complete understanding of the project management steps necessary for success
  • A list of implications for their organization
  • A communication plan for Top Managers, Managers and decision makers and employees
  • A list of barriers unique to their organization and a plan for overcoming these
  • A project task list that is customized to their organization with names assigned to each task
  • A resource plan including a project budget
  • A Gap Analysis that identifies and prioritizes the areas requiring the most work
  • The confidence necessary to proceed with a successful project

 

Use this training to Jumpstart (or re-start) your AS9100 Implementation Project

This course is designed for participants who need to implement AS9100 within their organization. Participants will understand the requirements and the implications for their organization and will acquire tools that will help them:

  • Fully understand and successfully interpret the AS9100 requirements
  • Achieve the benefits that are inherent within the AS9100 requirements
  • Proceed with their project in a timely, cost effective manner
  • Understand the obligations directed or implied within the AS9100 requirements
  • Create a communication plan for your organization, management and executives
  • Develop a project plan including timeline and assigned responsibility for specific tasks

The agenda and course content described below has been created by Quality Management and Educational experts with the goal of making your project a success. This is a hands on course with each student walking away from the course with “deliverables” that are intended to jump start your AS9100 project.

This course can be customized to meet the unique implementation needs of your organization.

Agenda

 

Day One

  • Background and Introduction
  • The contents of AS9100
  • Activity #1 Implications of the Requirements
  • Discussion of Activity #1
  • Strategies for Making the Requirements Work for Your Organization
  • Project Management
  • Gap Analysis Activity #2

 

Day Two

  • Student Activity #3 Identifying and Communicating Anticipated Benefits
  • Student Activity #4 Differences in Approach to be Communicated
  • Student Activity #5 Anticipated Involvement (Scope of Work)
  • Student Activity #6 First Steps in Initiating the Project
  • Student Activity #7 Responsibilities within the Project
  • Student Activity #8 Reporting and controlling project results
  • Student Activity #9 Identification of Business Factors
  • Student Activity #10 Driving and Restraining Forces
  • Student Activity #11 Skills Acquisition Planning
  • Student Activity #12 Anticipated Resources
  • Student Activity #13 Budget and Deadlines
  • Student Activity #14 Building a Project Plan and Timeline
  • Selecting a Certification Body
  • Project Notes

 

As a member of your AS9100 project team, you gain critical knowledge to move your company ahead in today’s competitive marketplace. ISO Management Representatives will gain the credibility and prestige to effectively interact with certification bodies, customers, and suppliers.

________________________________________________________________

-AQS Management Systems, Inc. is an Internationally recognized management consulting firm specializing in ISO / AS9100:2009 Implementation.

Early Transition- AS9100:2016 $950

Early Bird Transitions for New ISO 9001, 13485, & AS9100 Revisions

Who Should Attend

Those responsible for planning and executing the transition from ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015, including Management Representatives and Quality Managers, or anyone desiring an up-to-date awareness of the changes that will be impacting new or existing ISO 9001:2008-based Quality Management Systems, including ISO 13485 and AS9100.

Course Objectives

  • Fully understand and interpret the relevant appendices of Annex SL, with their implications
  • Receive tools, techniques and tips to address the strategic planning elements of Annex SL
  • Become aware of changes to Preventive Action, and basic risk-management concepts and tools
  • See how the new format and structure of the Annex SL sub-clauses compare to those of 2008
  • Become aware of changes in documentation and other requirements
  • Plan and schedule needed internal changes on a Transition Road Map
  • Provide critical knowledge for your management and staff regarding the evolution of ISO 9001

 

Agenda

 

Day One

  • Major Milestones completed to date
  • Schedule Leading to Final Publication of ISO 9001:2015
  • Introduction to Annex SL, 2012
  • Implications of Appendix 2
  • Comparison of the Structure and Sequence of Annex SL (Appendix 3) to ISO9001:2008
  • Implications of Appendix 4
  • Strategic Planning Elements of 4.1, 4.2, 6.1, and 9.3
  • Risk-based Elements of 6.1, 7.5.1, and 8.1
  • Action Plan Elements of 6.2
  • Likely Differences in Documentation and Other Requirements
  • Timetable for Transition of Certification to ISO 9001:2015, ISO 13485:2015, and AS9100:2016
  • • Individualized Transition Road Map

 

1-Day AS9100 Manager and Executive Overview

AS9100 Overview

 

This course is designed for managers and executives that need to understand the requirements of AS9100 and the implications for their organizations.

 

Who Should Attend

Those responsible for planning and scheduling an audit program for AS9100 who must perform audits to AS9100, Assurance Managers, Quality Assurance professionals, ISO Project Managers, Project Team Members or anyone an in-depth understanding of the Audit Process.

 

Goals

To provide decision-makers with information that will help them to provide direction for their existing or planned AS9100 quality management system.

 

Learning Outcomes

  • Fully understand the requirements of AS9100
  • Process approach and its impact on the QMS
  • Understand the implications and benefits for your organization
  • How to ensure benefits and results
  • Managements role in effective internal audits

 

Additional One Day Executive Overview Outcomes

  • Identify steps necessary for your organization to successfully implement AS9100
  • Impact on Documents and Processes
  • How AS9100 will be interpreted by your auditor

 

 _______________________________________________________________

-AQS Management Systems, Inc. is an Internationally recognized management consulting firm specializing in ISO / QS / TS Implementation.